23 Mayıs 2009 Cumartesi

The Russian Revolution/Karakışla-May 11,2009

19th century Russia
Dynastic monarchy under the Romanovs
19th c capitalism developing under the monarchy with the support of a landed aristocracy
Multiethnic, multiconfessional, multilingual empire
1861 emancipation of serfs
1860 railroads & coal, iron & steel industries
1870s repression of peasants -intelligentsia
1876 Land & Freedom Party assasinating the reformer despot Tsar Alexander II

Imperial rivalry with Japan over Korea and Manchuria, 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
Bloody Sunday Massacre: workers marching to the palace in Petrograd
Unrest: workers
Insurrections: peasants
Demonstrations: students
Mutinies: army and navy
New urban councils: SOVIET and DUMA

Early 1917
Protest across society, strikes, mutinies, demonstrations in St. Petersburg(Petrograd-Leningrad)

February: Protesters march to the palace, TSAR abdicated-- unplanned and incomplete Revolution ending Romanovs
Provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet of Workers & Soldiers
Between February and October struggle of the government & the SOVIET

Late 1917
Government refuses what the people most want: ending the war
Promised land reform is also refused, further dissatisfying the peasantry
Lenin: proletariat revolution but under strict discipline and organization
Lenin and Bolsheviks overpowers Russian social Democrat Party
Bolsheviks organize all Soviets: ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS - PEACE LAND BREAD
October 24th, armed insurrection under Trotsky: 10 DAYS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD


The Bolshevik Party declares 2 decrees, on peace and on land
Brestlitovsk 1918
“Dictatorship of the Proletariat”
No immediate victory - opposition to Bolsheviks
Civil war, 1918-1920 between Red Army and the Whites

Lenin and his demise
1921, end of civil war with 10 million dead and a devastated economy after 7 years of war
NEW ECONOMIC POLICY of Lenin: Market economy and small private business
Bolsheviks continue to argue for a complete revolution, Lenin dies 1924