23 Nisan 2009 Perşembe

Week 9-primary sources-key questions

1- How did Ahmet Mithat describe the early ottoman empire and how should it reflect to modern reforms?
2- How was the apprehension of identity according to Tanzimat Edict?
3- What were relations of Tanzimat with references like sheria and nizam?

22 Nisan 2009 Çarşamba

Towards a Europe of Nations and Latecomers/Karakışla-April 17,2009


Fichte and Herder’s influence on nationalism
19th century: “nation” tried to find reserved common cultural past.

Economic nationalism: Frederick List (1789-1846), The National System of Political Economy (1841) spoke the motto of et la patrie et l’umanite implying deep concerns of a devoted German patriot and liberal about the backward and , and pre-industrial state of Germany in his day.

Europe under napoleonic Rule-1810

Europe after the Congress of Vienna-1815

Nationalism theories:
+Nostalgia: Nationalist nostalgia is looking back and yearning for unifying themes. –
the some gestures as examples of common cultural past like knocking on wood as a Greek tradition, while pulling ear is Jewish, tütütü is Iranian, mashallah is Arabic, and evil eye (nazar) is central Asian shamanist (Mongol) tradition.

- Nationalism is conscious effort to unite people under one flag, one land, one religion, common past and culture. (Asabiyya)

- Ziya Gökalp’s hars

Europe after the Congress of Berlin,1878

Unification of Germany and Italy

-Prussian prince Otto von Bismarck managed to unite all German under the one flag and one rule. So the concert of Europe changed drastically. After the war with France, Germany occupied Alsace-Lorain and allied with Habsburg and Russia, which was named as 3 Empire League in 1873.

Unification of Germany

-1877-78 Russo-Ottoman War: Serbia declared war against Ottomans. Montenegro and Russia soon entered the war on the side of Serbians. This war has become the last of series of war between Russia and Ottoman Empire. Germany stepped in Congress of Berlin in 1878 and Russia got very angry and pulled Germany out of 3 Empire league in 1879. Russia and Austria-Hungary made Dual Alliance till 1918.

Unification of Italy

-Unification of Italy was the result of a movement called the Risorgimento: Re-Unite.
In 1848 revolutionary disturbances started and Mazzini started to the project of young Italy movement. Garibaldi was the leader of revolutionaries, unified Italy.

-The only opposition in Italy was the pope in Vatican. Garibaldi did not touch on Pope.

-As one of the latecomers, like Germany, Italy joined the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882. (In both wars, Italy changed his place and USA joined the war on the leading side!)

The Balkans : in conflict during 1880 and 90s.

-In 1890 Bismarck resigned and in 1894 Russia made alliance with France, which resulted in direct joint of Great Britain and Germany was excluded from this Triple Entente.

-Ottomans, Germans and Habsburg constructed the Triple Alliance. 1914 was the year for Balkans to fragment with Bulgarian independence, and unification of Crete with Greece caused Ottomans to get nervous.

Colonial Possessions of World Powers,1914

Germany and Italy, as latecomers to industrial revolution and imperialism gave way to nation-formation. They jumped to the imperial-colonial train eagerly, which was the main source of war in Europe in 1870s.

The Nations at War-1914

20 Nisan 2009 Pazartesi

Nations and Nationalism in Europe/Karakışla-April 15,2009


The popular motto is “the freedom of a person is limited by the freedom of other”. Minimum government and government intervention is desired just to protect the private property and to provide orderly life.

Freedom will solve all problems and supply the needs. Enlightenment ideas such as embraced right to vote, private property, constitutional government, parliamentary sovereignty and free market economy are the important concepts of liberalism.
‘Laissez faire- laissez passer”


was another ideology of the age which advocated the status quo if they are happy with the existing situation.

19th century was a dynamic century for the social system’s change. Main motto was “conservatist corporate nature of our society into the centre of conservatism”. Edmund Burke, one year after the revolution, represented the conservative scare of revolution.


was another significant outcome of French Revolution. It is being READY TO DIE for your country. It is in other words, being ready to sacrifice of himself for the safety and good for your country.

Considering the country over all is like “Deutschland, Deutschland über alles.”

Patriotism is DIE4U while Nationalism is KILL4U.

-the pride in nation and still dominant in 21st century.
-the main reason for the collapse of multiethnic, multi-linguistic, multi-religious empires in the world./ unification of Italy and Germany (1871)
-19th century nationalism was an ideology of educated middle class and strongly a European phenomenon.
- The ideological smelt to unite nation and nationalism was the backbone for nation-formation.

Nationalism with Darwin: German, French and British nationalisms in the 19th century were racist and they generated an agenda to prove their national superiority against others. US & THEM

Marxist ideology claims that nationalism gave birth to other nationalisms. This is the escalation, which is going rougher, rusher, harsher. Escalation is important in the sense that it resulted in racist mode of nationalisms, which brought national wars.

Romanticism and the Rise of History/Ersoy- April 13,2009

Romanticism and the Rise of History

The rise of history in the nineteenth century (as academic field and as a broad field of historical representation and imagination)

Romanticism and the modern cult of nostalgia – The growing demand for and obsession with the past. The modern cult of history as a symptom of the traumatic rupture with traditional continuities of the past

Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886). The establishment of history as a scientific field

Leopold von Ranke

Romanticism’s critique of cosmopolitan society

Cosmopolitanism – Being a citizen of the world, common Enlightenment culture. Shared values, secular ideals, modes of existence beyond religious, national, traditional barriers.

Perceived as unnatural, artificial, and as a token of the ancien régime in France; as an instrument of French cultural hegemony outside of France (esp. England and Germany)

“Superficial” clothing styles and etiquette (18th century)

The advent of “naturalness” and casuality (19th century)

Marianne – symbol of the French Revolution

15 Nisan 2009 Çarşamba

Renan-Key questions

-What is a "nation" according to Renan?

-In Renan's words, what is necessary to constitute a "nation"?

10 Nisan 2009 Cuma

Announcement for the make-up exam

Dear friends,
the make-up exam for HIST 106 is going to take place on April 15,2009. At 3 p.m. North Campus, KB 125. Good luck!

P.S: You should bring your medical certificate which is issued or approved by the Infirmary.

Tintin in the Congo- "white man's burden"

Outline-Age of Capitalism by Terzibasoglu

Origins of Capitalism( 30.03.09)

Capitalism, as a social system, where production is organised for exchange in the market for profit.
The novelty of this form of social organisation, historically specific.
Different accounts of the rise of capitalism

Commercialisation model: assumes rational individuals, markets as arenas of opportunity, associates capitalism with cities, continuity in history, bourgeois as the agent of change.

Critiques of the commercialisation model
Karl Polanyi: from markets to the market society
The rise of the market society in historically specific conditions and the necessary intervention of the state

The transition from feudalism to capitalism
The dynamics of agrarian relations: the agrarian origins of capitalism.

Mercantilism and Free Trade (01.04.09)
Mercantilism as economic nationalism, protectionism
Rise of the absolutist states in Britain and France, and mercantilist policies
Colonialism and mercantilism
Adam Smith and laissez faire
The idea of a natural order: the invisible hand, division of labour
English industrialisation and free trade policies

The Industrial Revolution(03.04.09)
Technological development is the result, not the cause
Agricultural origins
Creation of markets in land, labour and goods
English industrialisation:
the role of enclosures for the creation of a market in labour power, dispossession of peasants, emergence of a gentry and a class of wage labourers, the role of the Tudor monarchy, creation of a home market
The factory system
The family firm
Continental industrialisation as a reaction to English industrialisation
The role of railway construction
German industrialisation

Imperialism (1875-1914)-(06.04.09)
Imperialism and capitalism
Imperialism and industrialisation
The distribution or redistribution of the world as colonies among half a dozen European states
(land grab)
Economic motives
White settler communities
Raw materials
The fusion of economic and political motives
Impact on the colonized world
Impact on the metropolitan countries

The Working Class and the Bourgeoisie (10.04.09)
Democratisation of politics at the turn of the 20th century
Expansion of the electorate
Participation of the poor and the unprivileged to politics
Rise of mass working class parties
Trade unions
Suburban lifestyle as symbolic of the waning of middle class influence on politics
The link between the bourgeoisie and puritan values broken: spending as important as earning, the birth of the leisure class, tourism, sports
Changing structures of the bourgeois family
Who is middle class?
lifestyle and culture, leisurely activities and education as class markers
The growth and insecurity of the lower middle classes
Radical right in politics
Imperialism, war and nationalism

9 Nisan 2009 Perşembe

Week VII-Primary source-questions

-Is it possible to draw similarities between Drake’s approaches to Native Americans with Conrad’s approach to Africans? If so what kind of similarities and differences can be found?

-What does the civilizing mission entail? Civilizing mission of white men presuppose the civil state of one party and incivility of the other so is it possible to talk about a feeling of superiority on the European side? If so why do you think they felt that way? (Earl of Cromer)

7 Nisan 2009 Salı

Mid-term announcement

The midterm will be held on April 8, 2009 at 17:00. Each student must take the exam in the assigned room. Those students whose names are not on the room list will not be admitted to the exam in that room. (Students must bring their student ID cards. )

NH 301- section 02 ve 03
NH 304- section 09
NH 305- section 01,04, 05
NH 410- section 06,07,10
NH 405- section 08,11,12

3 Nisan 2009 Cuma

Review sessions for the mid-term exam-updated version

Sunday- 1 p.m GKM (the meeting room downstairs)-Seren Akyoldas
Monday-6 p.m NH 201-Emine Melek Cevahiroglu

2 Nisan 2009 Perşembe

Review sessions for the mid-term exam

April 3,2009 Friday 5p.m NH 201 (Ceren Abi)
April 3,2009 Friday 5p.m NH 202(Umit Firat Acikgoz)
April 6,2009 Monday 5p.m NH 201(Emine Melek Cevahiroglu)

April 6,2009 Monday 5p.m NH 202( Seren Akyoldas)-Maybe this session would be placed with a review session on Sunday(April 5,2009)-GKM? It is going to be announced tomorrow here...

Tomorrow and next Friday, there will be regular problem sessions as well.

1 Nisan 2009 Çarşamba

Announcement for the mid-term exam

For the Hist 106 midterm exam, you will be responsible for all topics that have been covered, up to the Age of Capitalism. The Age of Capitalism, that is this week's lectures, will not be included in the midterm exam.