Reformation in church
Change in Society and Culture
Origins of reformist thought:
-Late medieval origins of discontent with practices of the church and Papacy.
-Erasmus of Rotterdam
“St. Peters indulgence”, 1517
Martin Luther, “Ninety five theses”, 1517
Anglican church, 1529; break with papacy in England,1533
Primary figures of Protestant reformation:
Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin
Rejection of catholic mass, “priesthood of all believers”
Radical reformers: majority artisans and peasants, often against church hierarchies; based on drive for internal reform. Intensely persecuted by central authorities, Catholic and Protestant
Protestant ideas linked to political and social programs, demands regarding civil rights
Council of Trent, 1545-1563
Prominence of religious orders, particularly Jesuits, to propagate ideas of Catholic reformers
Wars of religion in Europe, intertwined with political and dynastic issues, 1520’s through 1648
Also: Suppression of others, preoccupation with witchcraft, expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain, establishment of Ghettos for Jewish communities.
Diet of Augsburg, 1555. Each prince to determine religion of his territory and to establish local church: step towards formation and homogenization of territorial states.
Women and social change:
-In protestant thought, women and men spiritually equal, while patriarchal rules and practices prevail.
-Relatively greater visibility, economic and legal independence of women, in catholic and protestant domains, to different degrees across social classes.
- Simultaneously, spread of Roman law unfavorable to women.