23 Mayıs 2009 Cumartesi
Nationalism and imperial rivalry at the hearth of the war
A TOTAL WAR: WHY?
28 Allies (ALLIES) against Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria (CENTRAL POWERS)
Beyond armies and borders: Central powers mobilized 21 million, the Allies eventually called 40 million men
Industrial nature of conflict, mobilizing arms & destroying national economies
Demise of 4 empires, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, Germany
9 new nations, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland
Ending British hegemony, primacy of Europe
Indian nationalism, from the 1920s
Turkish independence war, 1919
Bolshevik revolution, 1917
1908, Bosnia-Herzegovina annexed by Austria-Hungary
1911, Italy overtakes today’s Libya
1912-1913 Balkan Wars
Imperial rivalry between Germany and the British Empire, by the 1910s with almost equal industrial output
Nationalism and ethnic, economic, colonial ambitions
1871-1914 escalation of rivalry
Europe with powerful nations: Belgium in 1830, Italy in 1861, Germany in 1871
Still a hotbed of nationalism in Eastern Europe and the Balkans -- the Ottoman empire’s Christians, Austria-Hungary’s Slavic peoples
Germany backing both Ottoman and Austria-Hungarian empires
Green, Central powers & German Colonies, Purple, Allied and colonies, yellow neutral
The Fronts of the War
WESTERN FRONT : Along a line between northern France and the English channel
EASTERN (Russian) Front, later including Poland
IMPERIAL RIVALRY IN ASIA, Japan versus China
The Last 2 Years
Stalemate by the end of 1916
Italy entering war as an Allied Force
In 1917 Germany decides on submarine war
April 1917 the US enters the war
Germany driven out of France in October 1918
January 1918 , Wilson’s 14 Points
Dynastic monarchy under the Romanovs
19th c capitalism developing under the monarchy with the support of a landed aristocracy
Multiethnic, multiconfessional, multilingual empire
1861 emancipation of serfs
1860 railroads & coal, iron & steel industries
1870s repression of peasants -intelligentsia
1876 Land & Freedom Party assasinating the reformer despot Tsar Alexander II
Imperial rivalry with Japan over Korea and Manchuria, 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
Bloody Sunday Massacre: workers marching to the palace in Petrograd
Mutinies: army and navy
New urban councils: SOVIET and DUMA
Protest across society, strikes, mutinies, demonstrations in St. Petersburg(Petrograd-Leningrad)
February: Protesters march to the palace, TSAR abdicated-- unplanned and incomplete Revolution ending Romanovs
Provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet of Workers & Soldiers
Between February and October struggle of the government & the SOVIET
Government refuses what the people most want: ending the war
Promised land reform is also refused, further dissatisfying the peasantry
Lenin: proletariat revolution but under strict discipline and organization
Lenin and Bolsheviks overpowers Russian social Democrat Party
Bolsheviks organize all Soviets: ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS - PEACE LAND BREAD
October 24th, armed insurrection under Trotsky: 10 DAYS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD
The Bolshevik Party declares 2 decrees, on peace and on land
“Dictatorship of the Proletariat”
No immediate victory - opposition to Bolsheviks
Civil war, 1918-1920 between Red Army and the Whites
Lenin and his demise
1921, end of civil war with 10 million dead and a devastated economy after 7 years of war
NEW ECONOMIC POLICY of Lenin: Market economy and small private business
Bolsheviks continue to argue for a complete revolution, Lenin dies 1924
Feminism as- i.e. collective action by women to improve women's position/condition - did occur before the 1890s. Feminism is also defined as ‘advocacy of equal rights for women coupled with organised and sustained action for the purpose of achieving them’.
Many feminist historians refer to women’s rights activity from the 1840s to the 1920s as ‘First Wave feminism’ and to contemporary women’s movements as ‘Second Wave feminism’.
Brief Historical review
In the USA women's rights activity started around 1848,
In Germany the General German Women's Association was formed in 1865 and
In France the Society for the Demand for Women's Rights was set up in 1866.
In 1867 the first women's suffrage groups started in Britain and in Sweden, the Association for Married Women's Property Rights was formed in 1873.
There were also women's rights groups in Russia from the 1860s and in Italy from the 1890s.
First Wave feminism not limited to USA & Europe - also women’s movements in China, Persia, India, Palestine & Argentina - quite a lot of contact between organisations in different countries –
International Council of Women formed 1888 and the International Women’s Suffrage Alliance in 1902.
Across Europe, groups of predominantly middle class women began campaigning for access to higher education and the professions, for married women's property rights, for the reform of (male) sexual conduct and, eventually, for the vote (for suffrage).
The feminist movement in Western society, including
broad employment for women at more equitable wages
("equal pay for equal work");
the right to initiate divorce proceedings and "no fault" divorce;
the right of women to make individual decision regarding pregnancy, including obtaining contraceptives and safe abortions; and many others.
The shape and strength of the movement varied from country to country, and the differences were predominantly due to the different political circumstances in the different countries.
In Britain, working class women were a significant minority in the feminist movement but in Germany, the middle class and working class feminist organisations remained divided.
Many middle class feminists of the mid-nineteenth century came from families which were unconventional in some ways - for example, Quaker or Unitarian in religion and/or involved in other movements for political reform. Many working class feminists were active in trades unions and political parties.
The impact of feminism developing in the West was naturally seen in Ottoman society as well. In the last decade of the Ottoman Empire, societies emerged with names like “Taal-i Nisvan” (The Advancement of Women) or “Müdafaa-i Hukuk-u Nisvan” (The Defense of the Rights of Women). Severela women’s magazines were published including Kadınlar Dünyası and Kadınlara Mahsus Gazete. The essence of these efforts was to expand the sphere of civil rights through the struggle to establish women as human beings deserving equal "human and citizen" rights. In the footsteps of their western counterparts, Ottoman women demanded more rights in public domains, like the right to education and political privileges, but also voiced their demand for more equality in the domestic realm.
Some writers sought to extend the principle of natural rights to all human beings, for example, in the
Olympe de Gouge, Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791
Mary Wollstonecraft , The Vindication of the Rights of Woman ,1792
22 Mayıs 2009 Cuma
•Yet there was a major difference between the two as the outcome in the 20th century also portrays.
•land tenure system
• relationship between state and religion.
•The north historically had been divided into military colonies, in other words there was more government intervention there.
•The south, on the other hand, had been the land of farming and commerce.
•This is why resentment against gentry domination and local landlords was one of the major issues in the 20th century.
Lu Xun in the first decade of the 20th century
•The uprisings, revolts and also the revolution all had their roots in these issues. The degree of well being (on political, economic, social and educational terms) of a group as well of the individual became increasingly important.
•In comparisons with the modern western world China at the beginning of the 20th century was not faring well.
•This is why struggle against imperialism, for economic self-sufficiency, nation building with multi-ethnic characteristics, rule of democracy became major aims.
•The Chinese intellectuals were fighting for political, economic and intellectual rights.
•They also wanted to overthrow the Manchu Qing dynasty
•Chinese emperors as sons of Heaven were regarded as sacred but they were not the head of any religious denomination. There was also no religious establishment in association with the state. There were only different groups with various religious affiliations, like the Buddhists, Muslims, Catholics, Protestants, a.s.o.
Uprisings by religious groups (Taiping) were a historical phenomena but these groups had never been as part of the law and order or the mainstream. We encounter them each time towards the end of a dynasty. They helped to give a drive to discontent, but they were not part of the establishment. Each effort towards this end had ended with failure in Chinese history
Three Principles of the People
Because of these reasons the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen was able to speak in this Three principles (Sanmin zhuyi) of the unity of 5 nationalities.1. the Han, 2. Manchu 3. Tibet 4. Muslim/Uigur 5. Mongol
•With the aim of creating a modern nation Sun Yat-sen, said “Chinese people (people of the Middle Country) have only family and clan solidarity; they do not have national spirit. […] Therefore we must espouse nationalism and bring this national spirit to the salvation of our country.”
•While trying to raise national consciousness, he was on the one hand emphasizing the Han Chinese culture,
• but at the same time he proclaimed the equality of the 5 races (nationalities) in 1912.
-What the revolutionaries of the early 20th century wanted was the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty members of which came to be regarded as outsiders, conquerors, foreigners. With the revolution 1911 Chinese were neither fighting for a secular state nor for a one-nation state, but for a democratic state which was multi-etnic.
•They were fighting for democracy on the domestic and equality on the international scene. They also wanted to be equal to other nations in terms of modernity.
-The fight for democracy meant fighting against the power of the landed gentry and the norms of traditional Confucian society where hierarchies and veneration of ancestors was important.
The Long Road leading to Change of Mentality meant also fighting against well established norms of Confucianism and its hierarchical order
However the road to
a) land reforms and
b) change of mentality was a long one,
leading to the changes in 1949 with the People’s Republic of China.
•At present the former residence of Lu Xun has now been paired with the Lu Xun museum to offer comprehensive coverage of the former writer's life and work. The large renovated courtyard house belonged to the author between 1881 and 1936, Widely accepted as China's greatest modern writer, Lu Xun gave up a promising medical career to write books with the aim of curing thousands of bored, sick people with his pithy and satirical stories.
Sun Yat Sen's Memorial Hall(Taipei)
18 Mayıs 2009 Pazartesi
Daimyô -Feudal Lords
Sakoku(country in chain)
Completed 1641 lasted until 1868 (Meiji Restoration)
Commodore Perry's arrival in Japan
1858-Treaty of Amity and Commerce (US and Japan)
-exchange of diplomatic agents
-Edo, Kobe, Nagasaki, Niigata and Yokohamas opening to foreign trade as ports
ability of United States citizens to live and trade in those ports
-a system of extraterritoriality that provided for the subjugation of foreign residents to the laws of their own consular courts instead of the Japanese law system
-fixed low import-export duties, subject to international control
Similar unequal treaties were signed with Britain, France, Russia and Holland
November 9 1867 Official end of Edo Shogunate: Restoration of Imperial rule (Taisei Houkan)January 3 1868: Emperor fully regained the power
1868 Boshin War (forces from Chôshû and Satsuma vs. ex Shôguns army)
1872Abolition of the Han system
1877 End of Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensou, Southwestern War)
1885 System of Cabinet was adopted
1889 Meiji Constitution (constitution of the Empire of Japan) (1889-1847)
Cf. Kanunuesasi (December 23 1876-1878)
1890 Foundation of the Imperial Diet
1894-95 First Sino-Japanese War
1894 (1899) Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
(similar treaties were signed with 14 countries including the United States, France, Germany, Russia, Holland and Italy)
1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
The movie, "All Quiet on the Western Front" (dir. Lewis Milestone, 1930), is based on the novel by Erich Maria Remarque with the same title. It is considered a landmark film in the history of cinema, and one of the most powerful statements about World War I.
14 Mayıs 2009 Perşembe
2-What did the USA want in the end? ( Wilson)
3-How does the American soldier perceive Germans during the War? Does this perception change after the War? (Private Barkley’s Journal Entries)
13 Mayıs 2009 Çarşamba
12 Mayıs 2009 Salı
1/ Russians were always obsessed with “catching up with the West” or “being equal with the West”. This became particularly evident after the Enlightenment. Wanted to see Russian autocrat as an equivalent of other European monarchs. This created a movement among the educated elite toward greater participation in politics and an appraisal of the character of Russian autocracy as a legitimate form of government.
2/ Russian historians were all amateurs. Catherine II (1729-1796) herself published “Notes Concerning Russian History”. Russian historians adopted the Western model of writing history as centred on the ruler. They intended to prove that Russia after Peter the Great was in the process of “Europeanization” and had adopted the Enlightened principles of progress and secular causation. Peter the Great (1682-1725) was held up as the model of an elightened ruler. The rulers of Russia also gave these historians a duty to “do battle” with Western historians who tried to show Russia a primitive or barbarous.
3/ The dominant figure in the century was Voltaire (1694-1778). Voltaire claimed that it was “the great actions of kings that have changed the face of the earth”. Russia was obsessed by Voltaire. When, in 1756, his Essai sur les Moeurs et l ’Esprit des Nations (Essay on the Morals and Spirit of Nations) went on sale in St-Petersburg , it sold 3,000 copies on the first day.
4/ The secular role of the Tsar as the primary figure in raising the cultural level of the people was to take precedence over his religious role as the defender of Orthodoxy. The ideal Tsar became the reforming Tsar. Thus all Russian history came to be written in a retrospective perspective according to the Enlightenment principles of reform and progress.
5/ Various interpretations of legitimate autocracy . The focus of the debate was “whether autocracy, despite the risk of despotism, might still be preferable in Russia to aristocracy or democracy, with their threat of becoming oligarchic or anarchic. ” ( p36)
6/ The Dynastic Interpretation of Russian autocracy.Peter’s reign as the “culmination of Russian history” (p 37). “Dynastic historians presented the Russian educated pulic an autocracy the equal of any ruling house of Europe, an important desideratum when the country was just entering the Western family of nations”.
7/ The Empirical ModelThe historians who defended the Empirical model , “concluded like most European thinkers, that democracies are appropriate only in small states, aristocracies only where there are an educated population ...and limited monarchy of the British variety...where people are both enlightened and well acquainted with notions of individualism. None of these characteristics applied to Russia. Without such conditions a state headed by a strong ruler who would wield unlimited powers and work through a bureaucracy to effect the common good”. (p 40).The source of autocratic power was the idea that the monarch was like father . This was very similar to the Ottoman formulation of the sultan as “peder-i müşfik” or “affectionate father”.
8/ The Nondespotic Interpretation.The focus shifted in the 1770’s from the benefits of unlimited power to the danger of its becoming despotic and the danger of power wielded in an unjust, cruel or arbitrary manner. The Ottoman equivalent would be “istibdat” as was used by the opponents of Abdülhamid II (1876-1909).
9/ Love-hate relationship between Russia and Europe.From the 18th century onwards the Russian intelligentsia (a Russian word) tried to prove that it was “European”. At first the achievements of Peter the Great and later Catherine II seemed to show that Russia had taken its place in the Western family of nations.
10/ The Shock of Napoleon.After the French Revolution had illustrated that the Enlightenment had turned fundamentally against autocracy this came as shock to Russia. Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, was to create another shock. But Russia was on the winning side and Russian troops marched into Paris in 1814. It seemed that Russia had actually rescued the West from despotism.
11/ The Revolution of December 1825.In December 1825 a group of young military officers inspired by the ideas of radicalism of the French Revolution, tried to stage a revolution in St Petersburg. The attempt was a fiasco.The TsarNicholas I was extremely harsh with these youg aristocrats, hanging some and sending others into exile in Siberia. Russia seemed once again to have become a despotism.
12/ The Crimean War 1854-1856.The defeat of Russia by the alliance of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France. Once again Russia seemed to be thrown out of the European family of nations. The love hate relationship with Europe continued.
13/ Slavophiles and Westerners.Russia had two capitals. St Petersbug and Moscow. Two cities symbolizing two different worlds. St Petersburg Russia’s window on the West. Moscow, mystic Orthodox Russia.Slavophiles rejected the West and beleived that Russia was superior. One of the most famous slovophiles was Dosteyevski. Another major figure who beleived in the basic goodness of the Russian peasant was Tolstoy.
14/ The Attraction of the West vs. the “Russian Soul”.The way in which the Russian intelligentsia overcame its feeling of inferiority towards Europe was to argue that the West had technological progress etc. But that it was materialistic and shallow whereas Russia was great because it had the “Russian Soul”. Nobody was very clear about just what this was.
7 Mayıs 2009 Perşembe
Fukuzawa Yukichi, (1835-1901), Civilization and Enlightenment, pp.705-707
1-How does Fukuzawa Yukichi perceive "West"? How does he describe "civilization"?
2-What does cosmopolitanism mean for Sun Yat Sen?
Standart deviation: 20,01
TBA-will be announced tomorrow night.
NPs(the students who are registered but were not present in the exam.)
4 Mayıs 2009 Pazartesi
Distinct path of modernization (among first generation of “non-western modernities,” such as Japan and Russia)
The reform attempts of Selim III (r. 1789-1807), curbed by social / economic power groups: provincial notables and the Janissaries
The modernizing reforms of Mehmed Ali Pasha (r. 1805-1848) in Egypt
First newspaper Vekayi-i Mısriyye (1829) (followed by Ottoman Takvim-i Vekayi in 1831); universal conscription
Mahmud II (r. 1808-1839) – end of the Ottoman ancient régime, the emergence of modern military and administrative infrastructure. The establishment of a centralized absolutist state.
Elimination of peripheral groups:
a) provincial magnates
b) the Janissaries (1826) – end of “kul” system. Immense socio-economic consequences: end
of economic protectionism and state monopolies – 1828 Anglo-Ottoman trade agreement
First census, cadastral survey, modern postal service and road network: Control and surveillance
Necessary reforms for modern centralized state: modern education (elementary and higher level); enlarged and efficient bureaucracy
Dress Code of 1829 – Uniform dress for all government employees
Abdülmecid (r. 1839-1861)
Edict of the Rose Chamber (Gülhane Hatt-ı Hümayunu) 1839 and the Tanzimat reforms followed by the Reform Edict (Islahat Fermanı) of 1856
Center of power moves from the palace to the Porte – “Men of Tanzimat” – the bureaucrats assume the leading role
“Ottomanism” – New Ottoman politics of identity: All-inclusive, secular, supra-ethnic, supra-religious Ottoman identity (as opposed to exclusivism of traditional Ottoman identity); Ottoman “civic patriotism”
Challenges / dilemmas / inherent flaws of integrative Tanzimat Ottomanism:
For the dominant Muslim community: The psychological challenge of acknowledging full equality with non-Muslims; abandoning privileges and traditional supremacy
For the non-Muslim communities: The systematization of the millet system (of ethno-religious communities) with the Tanzimat. Loosely organized communities becoming more rigidly segregated – communities turning into impervious compartments: A segmented society with communities having their own educational systems and institutions, and relative administrative and legal autonomy
Three old fashioned dynastic empires, struggling to survive in the age of nationalism
“Exceptional,” alternative paths of modernization and collective identification
3 empires as “prison-houses of nations.”
“Enlightened Absolutism” in Russia and the Austrian Empire
Peter I (the Great) (r. 1682-1725), centralizing and secularizing reforms
Catherine II (the Great) (r. 1762-1796), an Enlightenment intellectual
Peter the Great
Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780), modern centralized bureaucracy and efficient, secularized state mechanism
Joseph II (r. 1780-1790), expanding secularized state power, German as administrative language
Franz Joseph (r. 1848-1916) as Habsburg emperor – “neo-Absolutism” and return to conservative reformism
The “compromise” (Ausgleich) of 1867 between Austria and Hungary: Founding of the “Dual Monarchy” and the Empire of Austria-Hungary – Two parliamentary constitutional states united by one ruler