4 Mayıs 2009 Pazartesi

Habsburgs, Ottomans, Romanovs/Ersoy-April 20,2009

Habsburgs, Ottomans, Romanovs

Three old fashioned dynastic empires, struggling to survive in the age of nationalism
“Exceptional,” alternative paths of modernization and collective identification
3 empires as “prison-houses of nations.”
Eighteenth-century changes in the Habsburg and Romanov Empires:
“Enlightened Absolutism” in Russia and the Austrian Empire
Peter I (the Great) (r. 1682-1725), centralizing and secularizing reforms
Catherine II (the Great) (r. 1762-1796), an Enlightenment intellectual

Peter the Great

Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780), modern centralized bureaucracy and efficient, secularized state mechanism
Joseph II (r. 1780-1790), expanding secularized state power, German as administrative language
Imperial Romanov eagle

Flag of Imperial Habsburg

Post-Revolution / post-Napoleonic wars: Increasing conservatism in Habsburg and Romano Empires: 1815 Vienna Congress and the “Metternich system” of order and stability (1815-1848)

von Metternich

1848 Revolutions in Europe – various demands related to freedom, democracy, national emancipation, better conditions of life

1848 Revolution

Barricades in Berlin-1848

Hungarian declaration of freedom and Lajos Kossuth – suppressed with the aid of Russia
Franz Joseph (r. 1848-1916) as Habsburg emperor – “neo-Absolutism” and return to conservative reformism
Austria defeated by Prussia in 1866 (Sadowa)
The “compromise” (Ausgleich) of 1867 between Austria and Hungary: Founding of the “Dual Monarchy” and the Empire of Austria-Hungary – Two parliamentary constitutional states united by one ruler

The growing process of “Magyarization” in Hungary after the Compromise – mounting conflict between the Magyar nobility and Romanians, Serbs, Croats, Slovaks.