Fichte and Herder’s influence on nationalism
19th century: “nation” tried to find reserved common cultural past.
Economic nationalism: Frederick List (1789-1846), The National System of Political Economy (1841) spoke the motto of et la patrie et l’umanite implying deep concerns of a devoted German patriot and liberal about the backward and , and pre-industrial state of Germany in his day.
Europe under napoleonic Rule-1810
+Nostalgia: Nationalist nostalgia is looking back and yearning for unifying themes. –
the some gestures as examples of common cultural past like knocking on wood as a Greek tradition, while pulling ear is Jewish, tütütü is Iranian, mashallah is Arabic, and evil eye (nazar) is central Asian shamanist (Mongol) tradition.
- Nationalism is conscious effort to unite people under one flag, one land, one religion, common past and culture. (Asabiyya)
- Ziya Gökalp’s hars
Unification of Germany and Italy
-Prussian prince Otto von Bismarck managed to unite all German under the one flag and one rule. So the concert of Europe changed drastically. After the war with France, Germany occupied Alsace-Lorain and allied with Habsburg and Russia, which was named as 3 Empire League in 1873.
-1877-78 Russo-Ottoman War: Serbia declared war against Ottomans. Montenegro and Russia soon entered the war on the side of Serbians. This war has become the last of series of war between Russia and Ottoman Empire. Germany stepped in Congress of Berlin in 1878 and Russia got very angry and pulled Germany out of 3 Empire league in 1879. Russia and Austria-Hungary made Dual Alliance till 1918.
Unification of Italy
-Unification of Italy was the result of a movement called the Risorgimento: Re-Unite.
In 1848 revolutionary disturbances started and Mazzini started to the project of young Italy movement. Garibaldi was the leader of revolutionaries, unified Italy.
-The only opposition in Italy was the pope in Vatican. Garibaldi did not touch on Pope.
-As one of the latecomers, like Germany, Italy joined the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882. (In both wars, Italy changed his place and USA joined the war on the leading side!)
The Balkans : in conflict during 1880 and 90s.
-In 1890 Bismarck resigned and in 1894 Russia made alliance with France, which resulted in direct joint of Great Britain and Germany was excluded from this Triple Entente.
-Ottomans, Germans and Habsburg constructed the Triple Alliance. 1914 was the year for Balkans to fragment with Bulgarian independence, and unification of Crete with Greece caused Ottomans to get nervous.
Germany and Italy, as latecomers to industrial revolution and imperialism gave way to nation-formation. They jumped to the imperial-colonial train eagerly, which was the main source of war in Europe in 1870s.