15 Mart 2009 Pazar


-alternating phases of universalism and localism on the Asian scene. These phases ended with the establishment of the Mongolian Empire.

-With the end of the Mongol Rule in China , a new dynasty emerged: The Ming, the bright one.

-The situation that was a result of the earlier struggles. During the Mongolian empire two trends a) powersharing (diversified use of power) , redistribution

b) and concentration of power and pooling in and ruling from a bureaucratic center had been at odds with each other. China where the predominance of sedentary population, agriculture, art and crafts were always seen, was also traditionally a bureaucratic state.

-Another change from earlier patterns was that during the first millennium and with the Mongol Empire people were constantly on the move. There were migrations, conquests and as a result blending of populations and cultures. As a result of blending of peoples and bringing religions from antagonism into a coexistence, migrations and conquests had ended.
-The end of the migrations meant also an end for the disruption of the country side by around 1500-1550s. This is to note that the end of the migrations, and the process of settling down seems to have started as an inner dynamic and not as a response to outside powers.

-The new characteristics of this phase were borderlines, and an urge to put things within those borders into order; borderlines arose between the sedentary and the nomadic; between religions, sects, languages and culture.

-The collapse of the Mongolian empire brought about other changes in Asia. We have the regional empires

-This was a period of bringing a new order for all of the regional empires including China.
-This era shows a distinct change in terms of its goals and values. It is no longer the martial values that are praised but “civil” values.

-They all tried more or less successfully to bring an end to the domination of the nomadic peoples, inside, at the frontiers and outside. By the middle of the 16th century These efforts had ended with a subordination of the nomads to the sedentary order.
-Except for the western Mongols there were no more threatening nomads at China’s frontiers.
For a brief time there were maritime expeditions in the south, led by the eunuch Zheng He. These expeditions were brought to an end after a short time.

-In the north also the great Wall as we know it today was constructed. It was now a continuous borderline, so wide that one could travel on by chariots.

-As a result the Ming empire was able to concentrate on internal issues, on issues related setting the house in order. These “fences” around China contributed to non-interference from outside.

- Leading to the development of the capital city with the palace

The Temple of heaven

The Ming Tombs

Neo-Confucianism Wang Yangming
-Building historiography by writing the histories the previous three alien dynasties, including the Mongols (Yuan).
-Easing of internal trade, more freedom of movement to merchants, building of shrines for merchants
-increase of literacy both for men and women.

-development of arts and crafts, Ming porcelain, Ming furniture just to name a few.