For its opponents, the Revolution meant the dark forces of mob and terror.
-Economic crisis in 1787-88. April 1789: rising prices, raids to bakeries
4 may 1789 - the King opens the Estates General after 150 years. On 17 June the Third Estate breaks the rules and declares itself National Assembly. Voting by head rather than by Estate is introduced.
14 July - 30000 muskets removed from the Hotel des Invalides - the Bastille (political prison) is besieged. Symbolic action
Church properties are confiscated, land is given to the peasants, aristocratic, feudal privileges are abolished. Suffrage is extended to one half of the male population. Catholicism is replaced by the cult of the Supreme Being in 1794
Moderate phase: 1794-1804
War continues but maintaining internal order and avoiding excess becomes the main objective.
1795 New constitution
May 1804 - Emperor
Napoleon as modern ruler
Napoleon as victorious warrior
Napoleon as Western healer of Oriental suffering subjects
Napoleonic invasion of Spain seen by a Spanish painter who had been committed to the ideals of the Enlightenment
-Although in 1815 the immediate result of the French Revolution seems to have fuelled reaction and conservatism, an irreversible process of democratization was started by it.
-Empowerment of the bourgeoisie will be a leading, constant aspect of European and world history during the 19th century.
-The bourgeoisie was thought to be a revolutionary force until 1848 by Marx.
-Opposite dangers of popular, jacobin radicalism and authoritarian evolution will constantly affect the following historical evolution.